THE HISTORY OF BURUNDI - Important Dates and Persons - Page 3

SOURCES: Lemarchand; Chrétien; Reyntjens; Naikumana; Ndarubagiye, Songore, IRIN, RTNB, OCHA Burundi, AGnews, ninde.org.


Cease-fire and Elections


Summary period

2005 -

May 2005, a cease-fire was finally agreed between the FNL and the Burundian government, but fighting continued. Renewed negotiations are now under way, amid fears that the FNL will demand a blanket amnesty in exchange for laying down their arms.

A series of elections, held in mid-2005 were won by the former Hutu rebel National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD-FDD). On September 7, 2006, a second ceasefire agreement was signed.



The referendum is to be held on 28 February, Commission Chairman Paul Ngarambe announced in Bujumbura in separate meetings with civic society and political parties.


Voters in Burundi took part in the country's first democratic poll in 12 years.

The result: an overwhelming majority for the post-transitional Constitution.

90.1% of the 2.89 million Brurundians that voted polled "Yes".

3.13 million Brurundians had registered as voters. The turnout was 92,4% and 50,7 % of the voters were women.

The constitutional referendum is the first step towards local, parliamentary and presidential elections.


The mandate of the Burundi Transitional Gevernment Extended

Regional leaders attending an emergency summit on Burundi peace initiative Friday 22.04.05 unanimously extended the mandate of the Burundi Transitional Government.

In a joint communiqué issued at the end of the summit, the leaders who included President Mwai Kibaki, extended the transitional period up to 26th August 2005 in line with the approved election calendar.


Election schedule

The chairman of Burundi's Independent Electoral Commission, Paul Ngarambe, has announced the country's elections timetable, which is scheduled to end on 19 August with presidential polls.

The country's new president would be sworn in on 26 August, Ngarambe said in the capital, Bujumbura, upon his return from Uganda.

Burundian President Domitien Ndayizeye and Agathon Rwasa, the leader of the country's remaining rebel group, the Forces nationales de libération (FNL), agreed to end hostilities and to work for lasting and sustainable peace in the country.

Declaration >


Communal Elections.

Out of 3,225 seats in competition, CNDD-FDD won 1,781 seats, followed by FRODEBU party with 822 seats. Union pour le Progrès National (UPRONA), came third with 260 seats followed by Movement for the Rehabilitation of Citizens (MRC), with 88 seats.

80.6 percent of the registered voters voted.


CNDD-FDD wins in communal elections held 3. June.

Final results are expected on 19 June


CNDD-FDD confirmed winner of communal polls.

Burundi's Independent National Electoral Commission, or CENI, released the final results of communal polls held countrywide on 3 June, confirming the victory of the country's former main rebel group, the CNDD-FDD, now a political party.

Out of 3,225 seats in the communal election CNDD-FDD won 1,781 seats, followed by FRODEBU party with 822 seats. This is 57.3% of the votes cast. The voter turnout was 80.6% of the registered voters.

The Union pour le Progrès National (UPRONA), came third with 260 seats followed by Movement for the Rehabilitation of Citizens (MRC), with 88 seats.

The next step is parliamentary election the 4 of July. The councillors elected at the communal election will elect the members of the higher chamber of the parliament. This will happen on the 29 of July. The new president of Burundi will 19 August be elected by the legislators elected in the parliamentary election joined by senators picked by the municipal councillors on July 29.


Parliamentary election

The FDD's was also victorious in the parliamentary election. FDD won 59 out the 100 seats available in parliament. FRODEBU came second followed by UPRONA.

The turnout was lower than at the Communal Election. Near 74% percent of the registered voters voted. People around the capital Bujumbura were fearful of attacks by the FNL.

Senate election.

CNDD-FDD candidates won the seats in the provinces of Cibitoke, Cankuzo, Gitega, Mwaro, Muyinga, Bubanza, Karuzi, Kayanza, Ngozi, Ruyigi, and Kirundo.

Some 119 candidates are contesting the 34 senatorial seats. The elected senators, along with the recently elected assemblymen, are to elect the country’s president on 19 August.


Presidential election

Pierre Nkurunziza from CNDD-FDD was voted in as president. The parliament voted 151 to 9 for Pierre Nkurunziza as the first post-transitional president.

IRIN 19.08.05: "Nkurunziza, 40, won 91.52 percent of the votes cast by a joint congress of the National Assembly and the Senate, the two houses of parliament. Running on the ticket of the Conseil pour la defense de la democratie-Force pour la defense de la democratie, Nkurunziza was the sole presidential candidate. He required two-thirds of the vote, corresponding to 108 ballots, to win in the first round."



Nahayo Immaculeé

First female speaker of the National Assambly - Nahayo Immaculeé - is elected.


Pierre Nkurunziza was sworn in as president - for a five-year period.


Two vice-presidents sworn in: First Vice-President Martin Nduwimana (Union pour le progress National) - in charge of political affairs, Second Vice-President Alice Nzomukunda (CNDD-FDD) -head of social and economic affairs.

Martin Nduwimana


Coup plot uncovered, president says

BUJUMBURA, 7 Mar 2006 (IRIN) - Burundi's internal intelligence service, the Service de renseignement, has uncovered a plot to overthrow the government, President Pierre Nkurunziza has said.


The main opposition party FRODEBU pulls out of the national unity government, accusing Nkurunzizas coalition of failing to abide by the constitutional agreement on power-sharing and failing to promote democracy.

A 13-year nationwide midnight-to-dawn curfew is lifted. The government declars that 95 percent of Burundian territory is at peace.


Peace talks between the government and the FNL; the remaining rebel group reached a successful conclusion. The peace pact that seeked to end the country's 12 year old civil war also ensured immunity from prosecution for the rebels. However, the FNL leader, Agathon Rwasa sayed ethnicity still remains a problem after a war which left nearly 300 000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus dead.



Burundi's government and the country's last rebel group tentatively agreed to end hostilities and sign a comprehensive cease-fire deal in two weeks.

Burundian Home Affairs Minister Brig. Gen. Erneste Ndayishimye and Agathon Rwasa, leader of the rebel National Liberation Force group, signed the agreement after more than two weeks of negotiations.

President Jakaya Kikwete, Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza and South African President Thabo Mbeki were witnesses to the signing in Dar es Salaam.

Accords de principe signe ce dimanche 18 juin entre GoB et FNL-version francaise:

Download PDF file

Peace talks aimed at producing a permanent ceasefire to end Burundi's 13-year civil war remained stalled as the 02.07.06 self-imposed deadline passed.


Earlier this week, authorities in Burundi detained former president Domitien Ndayizeye. Several other prominent politicians, including former vice president (30 April 2003 to 11 November 2004) Alphonse-Marie Kadege, have also been arrested in connection with the alleged coup plot.



Second Vice President Alice Nzomukunda resigns. She blaming official corruption and human rights abuses for derailing promising progress towards peace.

The government and the country's last rebel group FNL sign a full cease-fire today, ending 12 years of civil war.

The agreement was signed by President Pierre Nkurunziza and Agathon Rwasa, leader of the rebel National Liberation Force, said Dieno Khama, a South African mediator.



Burundi and Rwanda were accepted to join the East African Community, a regional grouping originally established to enhance economic integration for Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.

The inclusion of the two countries was made at the EAC Heads of State Summit, which drew leaders of the three countries plus the two entrants.


Former President Domitien Ndayizeye walks free from jail after he and four others are acquitted of plotting a coup.

ReliefWeb: Burundi rebels quit truce monitoring team

FNL quit a ceasefire monitoring team, saying government forces had not been withdrawn from areas under their control. The team began work i Feb.



Hussein Rajabu, the chaiman of the party in power, 'National Council for the Defence of Democracy - Forces for the Defence of Democracy' (CNDD-FDD), was arrested. He was charged with an attemt to overthrow President Pierre Nkurunziza. Rajabu was earlier responsible for the imprissonment for 7 months of former president Domitien Ndayizeye and others being accused of planning a coup d'etat in June last year.

Hussein Rajabu

(Photo/C. Kazooba - The New Times, Kampala) 


Burundi & Rwanda is today officially embraced as full members of the East African Community. The accession of Burundi and Rwanda into the EAC Treaty brings the total population in EAC (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda,Tanzania, Uganda) to about 120 million.

President Pierre Nkurunziza and his Rwandian counterpart, Paul Kagame, respectively sign the Accession Treaty at Serena Hotel, Kampala.

The event was witnessed by Presidents Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, who is the summit chairman, Mwai Kibaki of Kenya and Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete.


Peace agreement (first step)

An agreement to end conflicts in the country was signed by Burundi President Pierre Nkurunziza and Pelipehutu Federation for National Liberation (Pelipehutu-FNL) rebel movement, led by Agaghony Rwasa. The peace summit was held in Bujumbura. Four heads of state and government who included Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni, Mr Nkurunziza, Mr Banda, representatives of the African Union (AU), FNL's Mr Rwasa, vice-presidents and ministers representing the Great Lakes Region atended the summit.


Seal Railway Deal

Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi have signed a deal to develop a multinational railway network linking the three neighbouring countries.

Peace agreement (second step)

FNL accredited as a political party. The certification of the Forces Nationales de Libération (FNL) follows the separation and formal disarmament of its armed wing, including the separation of children associated with the group.

This should be the last obstacle before the signing of a Peace agreement.


Burundi Ratifies the East African Common Market portocol.The common market stats the July 01, 2010


Elections 2010.

Some 3.5 million Burundians went to the polls to elect their president for the next five years, casting their ballots in favour or against the ruling CNDD-FDD candidate Pierre Nkurunziza. Nkurunziza stands in a one-man race after the opposition pulled out of the electoral process over allegations of rigging in communal elections the 21 of May. The turnout was low in Monday's poll compared to local elections last month.



Burundi opposition leader (FNL) Rwasa admits he is in hiding. He went missing a week ago, ahead of presidential elections.


Parlamentary election:

The ruling party Conseil National pour la Defence de la Democratie - Forces de Defence de la Democratie party scored 81 seats in the 106-seat parliament. Uprona opposition party won 17 seats while Frodebu Nyakuri got five. The remaining three seats went to three people from the Twa ethnic community.

Elections 2015.

U.N. electoral observers in Burundi say, the election on July 27 that won President Pierre Nkurunziza a controversial third term took place in an environment that was "not conducive for an inclusive, free and credible electoral process."

The elections 2015 were strongly influenced by pesident Pierre Nkurunziza's dicision to run for the third tirm, dispite costitutional limits. In the months leading up to this election there were numerous demonstrations and violence. Burundi's main opposition leader Agathon Rwasa denounced the third consecutive term win by president Pierre Nkurunziza and demanded fresh elections.



The situation in Burundi a year after the elections in 2015:

The situation can be characterised as locked. The opposition still doesn’t approve the result of the election, and  murders and harassments have been part of the social picture in the country. The last that hit the news was the murder the 13 July of Hafsa Mossi, former minister and Burundis representative to the East African legislative assembly.

2017/ Aug

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